The differences between type 1 & type 2 diabetes; both occur when the body cannot properly store and use glucose, which is essential for energy. Sugar or glucose collects in the blood and doesn’t reach the cells that need it, which leads to serious complications.
The CDC estimates that over 30 million people in the United States probably have diabetes. Then there is the 25 percent that doesn’t know they have it.
Both types of diabetes can lead to complications, such as cardiovascular disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs.
Type 1 and type 2 have different causes, but they both involve insulin. Insulin is a type of hormone. The pancreas produces it to regulate the way blood sugar becomes energy.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DESTROYS CELLS
Type 1 diabetes, usually appears in children or adolescents. It can appear in older people, too. Your immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells so that they can no longer produce insulin. Only 5 percent of people have type 1 diabetes.
There is no prevention for type 1 diabetes and it is often hereditary.
In type 1 diabetes, the scientist thinks that the immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The cause is not known, but childhood infections may play a role.
The immune system destroys these cells, so the body can no longer make insulin. In turn, there is not enough insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. A person will need to use supplemental insulin for the rest of their life.
Type 1 diabetes often affects children and young adults. It can start suddenly, and it tends to get worse.
Risk factors include:
- Having a family history of diabetes
- Being born with certain genetic features
- Some medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis
- Possibly, exposure to some infections or viruses, such as mumps or rubella
AROUND 90-95 PERCENT OF PEOPLE WITH DIABETES HAVE TYPE 2 DIABETES
Type 2 diabetes, is likely to appear as people age. Yet, today there are many children being diagnosed with it. In this type, the pancreas produces insulin, but the body doesn’t use it correctly. Lifestyle factors seem to play a role in its development.
In type 2 diabetes, the bodies cells start to resist the effects of insulin. In time, the body stops producing enough insulin, so it no longer uses glucose correctly.
This means glucose can’t enter the cells. Instead it builds up in the blood. This is called insulin resistance.
It can happen when the person has high blood glucose. When the bodies cells are overexposed to insulin, they become less responsive.
Symptoms can take years to appear. People may use medications, diet and exercise in the early stages to reduce the risk or slow the disease.
In the very early stages, a person with type 2 diabetes doesn’t need insulin. As the disease gets worse, however, they may need it to manage their levels to stay healthy.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes:
- Having a family member with type 2 diabetes
- Being obese
- Following an unhealthy diet
- A lack of exercise
- Use of some medications, including some anti-seizure drugs
Certain ethnic groups are likely to develop type 2 diabetes. These include Black and Hispanic people, Native American Indians and Native Alaskans.
In summary, genetic and environmental factors may play a role in both type 1 & type 2 diabetes. Many people may be able to avoid getting type 2 by making healthier lifestyle changes.
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